Joseph Rudyard Kipling (1865 -1936) was an English journalist, short-story writer, poet, and novelist. He was born in India, which inspired much of his work. Kipling’s works of fiction include The Jungle Book (1894), Kim (1901), and many short stories, including 'The Man Who Would Be King' (1888). His poems include 'Mandalay' (1890), 'Gunga Din' (1890), 'The Gods of the Copybook Headings' (1919), 'The White Man’s Burden' (1899), and 'If-' (1910). He is seen as an innovator in the art of the short story. His children’s books are classics; one critic noted 'a versatile and luminous narrative gift.' Kipling in the late 19th and early 20th centuries was among the United Kingdom’s most popular writers.