In recent years, Ethiopia has experienced a rapid expansion of Khat production, marketing and consumption that has put her in a double bind. Her economy is becoming increasingly dependent on the production and export of Khat, the same way a significant section of her population is getting progressively enticed into its unbridled consumption. Khat abuse/addiction has led to serious and manifold socioeconomic problems including those relating to health. In spite of the fact that several millions of her citizens are preoccupied with Khat in the capacities of growers, traders, and chewers, the country has no clear policy to guide its production, distribution or use. The study, the findings of which are reported in this volume, focused on the unravelling the intertwined socioeconomic impacts of Khat consumption and addiction, and culminates with the identification of feasible national-level strategies and policy responses to the Khat conundrum.