This is a historical survey and analysis of some of the bloodiest conflicts in modern times. The civil wars in Rwanda and Burundi, twin states in the Great Lakes region of East Africa, are often explained in simplistic terms even by some political pundits as mere tribal wars, rooted in anciet hatred, between the Hutu and the Tutsi. Ethnicity is indeed a factor. But of paramount importance in this conflict between the Hutu and the Tutsi, in both countries, is the struggle for power although with 'racial' overtones, and the exclusion of the Hutu majority from meaningful participation in the political process. Therefore the conflicts are not tribal wars but political statements as well, probably more than anything else; what Tanzanian President Benjamin Mkapa aptly described as 'military expressions of political intent.' In this comprehensive study, the author also addresses one of the most controversial subjects today: conflict resolution in Africa. There are no easy answers, but the author attempts to provide some of them. He covers as much ground as possible, trying to come up with solutions not only to the wars in Africa's Great Lakes region, but in other parts of the continent as well.